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  • 火花塞的作用你都了解吗
  • 本站编辑:杭州尚逸汽车用品有限公司发布日期:2018-05-17 16:50 浏览次数:

是把点火线圈产生的高压电引入发动机汽缸,在火花塞电极的间隙之间产生火花点燃混合气。

目前常用的火花塞分为电阻火花塞、波金火花塞和铱金火花塞。
通常而言,电阻火花塞的寿命为2万公里,波金火花塞的寿命为4万公里,而铱金火花塞的寿命则能达到6至8万公里。因此,一般低端车原装火花塞为电阻火花塞,而豪华车和中优质车型的原装火花塞大多都是铱金火花塞。

根据火花塞材质的不同,火花塞的类型可分为:普通铜芯、钇金、铂金,铱金、铂铱合金火花塞等,这些类型的火花塞使用寿命有所不同,对应的更换里程也存在差异:

怎么确定火花塞的使用寿命到期,火花塞多久更换一次呢?火花塞是否需要更换拆下来检查一下就知道了,看看烧的颜色、电极的间隙、瓷体与金属外壳的缝隙是否漏气等等。

火花塞使用禁忌
1、忌长期不清洁积炭。

火花塞在使用中,其电极及裙部绝缘体会有正常的积炭产生,如果这些积炭长期不予清洁,会越积越多,比较终导致电极漏电甚至不能跳火。所以应定期清除积炭,不要等火花塞不工作时才进行清洁。汽车火花塞在使用中的七个大忌蓝鸟排气侧火花塞不打火花的故障。
2、忌长期使用。

火花塞型号繁多,但都有自己的经济寿命、如果超过经济寿命后仍然使用,将不利于发动机的动力性和经济性的发挥。有研究表明,随着火花塞使用期的延长,其中心电极端面会向圆弧形状变化,侧电极则向凹弧形状变化,这种形状将使电极间隙增大,并造成放电困难,影响发动机的正常工作。
3、忌随意除垢。

有些人在对发动机喷银粉或进行其它维护时,不注意火花塞外表的清洁,致使火花塞因外表脏污而漏电。清洁外表时,不可图方便、快捷使用砂纸、金属片等除垢,而应当把火花塞浸入汽油中,用毛刷予以清除,以确保火花塞外表陶瓷体不受损伤。
4、忌火烧。

现实中,有些人常常用火烧的办法来清除火花塞电极及裙部的积炭和油污,这种看似有效的方法,其实是十分有害的。因为火烧时,温度难于控制。很容易将裙部绝缘体烧裂,造成火花塞漏电,而且火烧后产生的细小裂纹往往不易发现,给排除故障带来很大麻烦。火花塞上积炭和油污的正确处理方法一是用专用设备清洁,会有很好的效果;二是溶液清洁,将火花塞放入酒精或汽油中浸泡一定的时间,当积炭软化后再用毛刷刷净凉干。
5、忌冷热不分。

火花塞除了外形不同,尺寸各异外,还分为冷型、中型、热型三种。一般高压缩比、高转速的发动机宜用冷型火花塞;而低压缩比、低转速的发动机宜用热型火花塞,介于两者之间的还有中型火花塞。此外,新发动机或大修发动机与旧发动机的火花塞选型可根据实际情况有所不同。比如,在发动机较新时,选用火花塞应趋向热型;使用时间校长的旧发动机因性能下降,火花塞容易产生过多的积炭和被油污损,选用火花塞应趋向中型或冷型,以提高火花塞抗油污的能力。

6、忌误诊错断。

更换新的火花塞或怀疑其有故障需要检查时,应当在机车正常运行一段后,停车熄火拆下火花塞观察其电极颜色特征,可有以下几种情况:
一是中心电极呈红褐色,旁电极及四周呈青灰色,为火花塞选型合适;
二是电极间有烧蚀或烧熔现象,裙部及绝缘体呈灼白状态,说明火花塞选型过热;
三是电极间及绝缘体裙部有黑色条纹,说明火花塞已经漏气。
火花塞选型不当或漏气应重新选择合适的火花塞。

7、忌安装过紧。

火花塞安装时一定要符合规定的扭矩。用专用工具安装时,一般不会超过,但若用力过大、过猛或用梅花扳手安装时、则常会损伤火花塞瓷芯或使螺丝滑扣,膨胀槽断裂而导致火花塞报废;但也不可安装过松,否则会造成发动机工作不正常。

The high voltage generated by the ignition coil is introduced into the engine cylinder, and spark ignites the mixture between the gap of the spark plug electrode.

At present, spark plugs are usually divided into resistance spark plugs, wave gold spark plugs and iridium spark plugs.

Generally speaking, the life span of the resistance spark plug is 20 thousand kilometers, the lifetime of the sparking plug is 40 thousand kilometers, and the life of the iridium gold spark plug can reach 6 to 80 thousand kilometers. Therefore, the original spark plug of the low-end vehicle is a resistive spark plug, while the original spark plugs of luxury cars and high-end models are mostly iridium spark plugs.

According to the different material of spark plug, the type of spark plug can be divided into common copper core, yttrium gold, platinum, iridium gold, platinum and iridium alloy spark plug. The service life of these types of spark plugs is different, and the corresponding replacement mileage is also different.

How to make sure that the life of the spark plug expires and how often does the spark plug change? Whether the spark plug needs to be replaced and removed to check it, see whether the color of the burning, the gap between the electrodes, the gap between the porcelain body and the metal shell is leaking, and so on.

Taboo for use of spark plugs

1, avoid long-term unclean carbon accumulation.

In the use of spark plugs, the electrode and the insulation of the skirt have normal carbon accumulation. If these carbon deposits are not clean for a long time, the more it will accumulate, which will eventually lead to the leakage of the electrode or even the fire. Therefore, carbon deposition should be regularly removed and not cleaned until the spark plug is not working. There are seven major hazards in the use of automotive spark plugs.

2, avoid long term use.

There are many types of spark plugs, but they all have their own economic life, and if they are still used after the economic life, it will not be beneficial to the power and economy of the engine. It is shown that with the prolongation of the use period of the spark plug, the end face of the central electrode will change to the shape of the arc, and the side electrode changes to the shape of the concave arc. This shape will increase the gap of the electrode, and cause the discharge difficulty, which affects the normal work of the engine.

3, avoid random descaling.

Some people do not pay attention to the cleanliness of the spark plug when they spray silver powder or other maintenance on the engine, causing the spark plug to leak because of its dirty appearance. When cleaning the appearance, it is not convenient and quick to use sand paper and metal sheet to remove the scale, but the spark plug should be immersed in the gasoline, and the brush will be used to clean it to ensure that the ceramic body of the spark plug is not damaged.

4, avoid fire.

In reality, some people often use fire to remove the spark plug electrodes and the carbon and oil of the skirt. This seemingly effective method is actually very harmful. The temperature is difficult to control because the fire is burning. It is easy to burn the insulator of the skirt and cause the leakage of the spark plug, and the small cracks produced after the fire are often not easy to find, which brings a lot of trouble to the troubleshooting.  The correct treatment of the coke and oil on the spark plug is to clean with a special equipment, and it will have a good effect. Two is the cleaning of the solution, the spark plug is soaked in alcohol or gasoline for a certain time, and then the carbon is softened and then the brush is used to dry.

5, avoid cold and hot.

Apart from the different shapes and sizes, spark plugs are also divided into three types: cold type, medium type and heat type. In general, a cold spark plug is suitable for a high compression ratio and high speed engine, while a low compression ratio and a low speed engine should be with a hot spark plug, and a medium spark plug is between them. In addition, the spark plug type selection of new engine or overhaul engine and old engine can be different according to the actual situation. For example, when the engine is new, the choice of spark plug tends to be hot; the old engine of the headmaster is prone to excessive carbon accumulation and oil fouling because of the decline in performance. The spark plug should be used to medium or cold type to improve the ability of the spark plug to resist oil pollution.

6, avoid misdiagnosis and misdiagnosis.

When the new spark plug is replaced or the fault needs to be checked, the spark plug should be dismantled and disassembled to observe the color characteristics of the electrode after the locomotive is running normally. There are several cases in the following cases:

First, the center electrode is reddish brown, and the side electrode and the surrounding gray green are suitable for the spark plug type selection.

The two is that there is an ablative or burning phenomenon between the electrodes, and the skirt and insulator are in a white state, which indicates that the type of the spark plug is overheated.

The three is the black stripe between the electrode and insulator skirt, which indicates that the spark plug is already leaking.

The proper spark plug should be re selected for improper selection or leakage of spark plug.

7, avoid installation too tight.

When the spark plug is installed, it must comply with the specified torque. When installing with a special tool, it usually does not exceed, but if it is too strong, excessive or with a plum spanner, it will often damage the spark plug porcelain core or screw the slider, the expansion slot breaks and causes the spark plug to be scrapped; but it can not be installed too loosely, otherwise the engine work will be abnormal.